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Militaries refocusing on battlefield innovation: Weapons and Warfare

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This week on Weapons and Warfare, the focus is on battlefield innovation. Host Ryan Robertson visits with the team at Building Momentum to see how they’re showing the modern warrior how to make the most of what they have available. Teaching lessons learned from Iraq, Afghanistan, and even today in Ukraine, see how innovation continues to have a place in the battlespace. 

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Also featured in this episode:

  • U.S. military officials provide an update on the V-22 and a timeline for its return to unrestricted service.
  • The Marines head to the islands to hone their skills in austere environments.
  • The Air Force joins the AI chatbot race.
  • Weapon of the Week: A British tank sets a new standard in testing trials.

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[RYAN ROBERTSON]

HELLO AND WELCOME TO THIS EDITION OF WEAPONS AND WARFARE, FOR STRAIGHT ARROW NEWS I’M YOUR HOST RYAN ROBERTSON.

ON TAP THIS WEEK, IF, AS THE SAYING GOES, NECESSITY IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION, THEN THE PEOPLE BEHIND A COMPANY CALLED BUILDING MOMENTUM ARE THE TEACHERS OF INVENTION. SEE HOW THEY’RE FOCUSED ON EQUIPPING THE MODERN WARFIGHTER WITH THE SKILLS TO INNOVATE ON THE BATTLEFIELD. 

AND WE’RE GOING ACROSS THE POND TO SEE HOW THIS TANK IS SETTING A NEW STANDARD AS OUR WEAPON OF THE WEEK.

BUT FIRST, SOME HEADLINES YOU MAY HAVE MISSED.

ONE YEAR AT THE EARLIEST. THAT’S WHEN THE HEAD OF NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND SAYS THE DOD’S BELEAGUERED V-22 OSPREY COULD BE CLEARED TO RESUME UNRESTRICTED FLIGHT. 

[VICE ADM. CARL CHEBI]

“I will not certify the V-22 to return to unrestricted flight operations until I’m satisfied we have sufficiently addressed the issues that may affect the safety of the aircraft. Based on the data that I have today, I’m expecting that this will not occur until mid-2025.”

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

TESTIFYING DURING A HOUSE OVERSIGHT SUBCOMMITTEE HEARING…

CHEBI SAID THOSE INVOLVED ARE LOOKING AT MATERIAL AND NON-MATERIAL CHANGES THAT WOULD ALLOW THE V-22 TO RETURN TO MISSION STATUS WITHOUT RESTRICTIONS. 

RIGHT NOW THOSE RESTRICTIONS INCLUDE ONLY FLIGHTS WITHIN 30 MINUTES OF A SUITABLE DIVERT AIRFIELD. ALL OF THIS IS IN THE WAKE OF FOUR OSPREY CRASHES IN THE SPAN OF 19 MONTHS–RESULTING IN THE DEATH OF 20 SERVICE MEMBERS.

THE V-22 ENTERED SERVICE IN 1989. IN 2010 THE MARINE CORPS IDENTIFIED A PROBLEM WITH THE AIRCRAFT’S HARD CLUTCH. THE VICE ADMIRAL TESTIFIED THOSE PROBLEMS WERE MITIGATED, BUT WON’T BE ELIMINATED UNTIL AN ONGOING REDESIGN OF THE SYSTEM IS COMPLETED.

[TRANSITION]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

WE’VE TALKED A LOT ABOUT HOW AMERICAN MILITARY LEADERSHIP IS ADAPTING TO WHAT THEY SEE AS THE WAY FUTURE CONFLICTS WILL BE FOUGHT. 

RECENTLY THE MARINE CORPS PUT SOME OF THOSE CONCEPTS TO THE TEST DURING WHAT IT CALLED DISTRIBUTED AVIATION OPERATIONS EXERCISE 24, WITH ANDROS ISLAND, BAHAMAS FILLING THE ROLE OF A REMOTE OUTPOST IN PLACES LIKE THE INDO-PACIFIC. BASICALLY CONDUCTING OPERATIONS FROM AN AUSTERE LOCATION. 

[CAPT. JOSIAH RICKE]

“When we’re out here at the, you know, in our tech in the Bahamas, trying to train where we don’t have the full maintenance support, we don’t have the full capabilities, we don’t have even the same working radio or computer networks, things like that, that were that we’re always familiar with. I think this is good, because it makes you think about how you’re able to get your point across, get your message across and eventually get ordinance to the right time in place.”

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

IT’S ALL PART OF WHAT THE MARINE CORPS IS CALLING FORCE DESIGN…

A RESTRUCTURING PLAN TO RESHAPE COMBAT POWER FOR FUTURE NEAR-PEER ADVERSARY CONFLICTS. THE GOAL IS FOR THE MARINES TO MODERNIZE EQUIPMENT, WORK CLOSER WITH THE NAVY, AND BECOME MORE OF A LIGHT STRIKE FORCE

[TRANSITION]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

AND FINALLY, THE AIR AND SPACE FORCES ENTERED THE A-I CHAT SPACE. 

FOR OBVIOUS REASONS, MILITARY LEADERSHIP DOESN’T WANT OFFICIAL BUSINESS DONE WITH COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE A-I SERVICES, THINK CHAT G-P-T, 

NOW, THEY HAVE THEIR OWN.

 THE AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY RECENTLY LAUNCHED NON-CLASSIFIED INTERNET PROTOCOL GENERATIVE PRE-TRAINING TRANSFORMER OR, THANKFULLY, NIPR (Nipper) G-P-T. 

IT’S AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CHATBOT THAT CAN INTERACT IN A “HUMAN-LIKE” MANNER, HELPING AIRMEN AND GUARDIANS WITH COMMUNICATIONS, TASK COMPLETION, AND ONLINE CODING ON A SECURE SYSTEM. THIS ISN’T A MILITARY FIRST, THE NAVY AND D-O-D ALREADY HAVE SIMILAR SERVICES.

[TRANSITION]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

IF YOU’VE BEEN IN THE WORKFORCE LONG ENOUGH–

ODDS ARE YOU TOOK SOME ON-THE-JOB TRAINING AT SOME POINT.

MAYBE YOUR COMPANY SWITCHED TO A NEW SOFTWARE PROGRAM…OR YOU WERE PROMOTED AND NEEDED NEW SKILLS.

YOU PROBABLY SPENT TIME WITH COLLEAGUES IN THE SAME BOAT AS YOU… SO YOU CAN ALL GO BACK TO YOUR JOBS WITH A LITTLE MORE KNOWLEDGE AND KNOW-HOW THAN YOU HAD BEFORE–

AND MAYBE SOME MORE CONFIDENCE TOO. 

IN THE WORLD OF SPECIAL OPERATIONS THOUGH…WHERE ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING IS A CONSTANT…SOME OF THE BEST TECHNOLOGIES, AND THE INSIGHTS IN HOW TO BEST USE THEM…DON’T ALWAYS MAKE IT TO THE FRONTLINES. 

AND THAT’S WHERE BUILDING MOMENTUM COMES IN…A SMALL BUSINESS WITH A BIG IDEA–TRAIN TIP-OF-THE-SPEAR OPERATORS HOW TO USE TOP-OF-THE-LINE TECH IN THE MOST OUT-OF-THE WAY PLACES.

[WEAPONS AND WARFARE THEME MUSIC]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

U-S GENERAL JOHN PERSHING–THE COMMANDER OF US EXPEDITIONARY FORCES IN EUROPE DURING WORLD WAR I SAID INFANTRY WINS BATTLES…LOGISTICS WINS WARS. 

IN A MILITARY SENSE–LOGISTICS IS BASICALLY GETTING THE RIGHT PEOPLE AND EQUIPMENT IN THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE RIGHT TIME…AND MAKING SURE BOTH WORK WHEN THEY ARRIVE.

BUT IN THE WORLD OF SPECIAL OPERATIONS…WHERE OPERATORS ARE OFTEN  DEPLOYED IN SMALL TEAMS, COVERTLY INTO HOSTILE FOREIGN TERRITORIES…

IT’S NOT LIKE YOU CAN JUST RADIO HQ FOR MORE SUPPLIES…IN THOSE SITUATIONS–IT’S A RACE TO THE CLEVER. 

[BRAD HALSEY]

We want them to be able to go into the, you know, Radio Shack of Morocco and figure that stuff out.

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

AS THE CEO AND CO-FOUNDER OF BUILDING MOMENTUM…IT’S BRAD HALSEY’S JOB TO MAKE SURE HIS CLIENTS CAN NOT JUST RUN THE RACE…BUT WIN IT. 

HE WAS A SPECIAL OPERATOR IN THE NAVY AND SERVED IN IRAQ BEFORE BEING INJURED

[BRAD HALSEY]

And then that surgery went bad. And so I was a disabled veteran. And so after that, I was like, you know what? I want to use my brain instead of my broken body to make a living.

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

SO HE DID. HALSEY WORKED FOR RESEARCH INSTITUTES AND THINK TANKS, DEVELOPING WHAT HE SAYS WERE SOME AMAZING TECHNOLOGIES.

[BRAD HALSEY]

And so this was, you know, post-September 11. We were in Iraq, we were in Afghanistan. And I was just really frustrated that all the technologies I was working on for DARPA, for the agency, for you know, all these organizations, none of that was actually going anywhere, it was just going on to the Raiders of the Lost Ark, you know, like warehouse shelves. 

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

IN 2008, HALSEY SPENT A YEAR IN IRAQ–LEARNING FIRSTHAND WHAT SOLDIERS FIGHTING ON THE EDGE NEEDED TO WIN. 

[BRAD HALSEY]

I had a lab in Baghdad that I made a lot of technology and solutions from, that I pushed out all across the country. 

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

FROM ITS HUMBLE BEGINNINGS IN BAGHDAD…BUILDING MOMENTUM IS NOW AT THE FOREFRONT OF GIVING SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES THE UNIQUE ON-THE-JOB TRAINING THEY NEED TO COMPLETE COVERT MISSIONS IN THE MODERN WORLD–

LIKE 3-D PRINTING A SPARE PART IN THE FIELD OR BUILDING AERIAL DRONES WITH STICKS. 

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

Looking at your your client list. I mean, SOCOM, JSOC, Rangers, EOD, Space Force, I mean, Airborne, you guys are helping to train, like, at the edge. You’re helping to equip folks at the edge.

[BRAD HALSEY]

Yeah, so today, we’ve trained almost 10,000 service members across every organization except for Coast Guard. Because you guys know what you did. No, because just we haven’t stumbled across that yet. And Ukraine is sort of validating all the stuff that we’ve been doing for almost 10 years now. 

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

STUFF LIKE PROTOTYPING NEW DESIGNS ON THE FLY–USING WHAT’S AVAILABLE AT THAT MOMENT. 

[BRAD HALSEY]

you know, how do you go out onto the economy and build a drone in Thailand? You know, how do you do this stuff with what you have around you? What can you what can you resource and source very fast to make that solution?

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

BUILDING MOMENTUM OFFERS A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT IBCs FOR ITS CLIENTS…OR INNOVATION BOOT CAMPS.

THE INITIAL WEEKLONG COURSE IS MORE OF AN INTRODUCTION TO THINGS LIKE 3D PRINTING, ROBOTICS, CIRCUITRY, CODING…FROM THERE, BUILDING MOMENTUM TAILORS THE INSTRUCTION TO THE CLIENTS. 

[BRAD HALSEY]

So we’ll listen to what they’re saying. Like recently, we just did autonomous boats out in Japan, because the the Marine Corps saw what Ukrainians were doing, they saw how, you know, the South China Sea is a really important thing to understand right now. And so we built, we showed them how to build these 12 foot boats that autonomously go out and drop sensors off, and come back to shore all you know, on their own right

[CHRIS SARGEANT]

In my opinion, that’s where that’s where building momentum shines is that tailoring of the courses.

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

CHRIS SARGEANT IS A NEWLY RETIRED US MARINE. HE JUST GOT OUT WITH 20 YEARS AND TWO DAYS. HE SPENT THE LAST PART OF HIS SERVICE DOING A FELLOWSHIP WITH BUILDING MOMENTUM.

HE SAYS ONE OF THE BEST THINGS THE COMPANY DOES FOR ITS CLIENTS–IS CHALLENGING NOT JUST HOW THEY APPROACH A PROBLEM–

BUT THEIR ENTIRE THOUGHT PROCESS AROUND IT.

[CHRIS SARGEANT]

12:47 As a Marine, especially in you know, the, the more complicated MOS is like explosive ordnance disposal, which I I’m an EOD tech, by trade, or in the Special Operations community. MARSI, Rangers, Green Berets, I came from MARSOC it failure is looked at very negatively, right? So if you fail, you failed, right? By getting the back in the line, you can try again later, right? Them enabling you to fail, fail fast and learn from it and view it as a positive thing, in my opinion, is, is huge, right? 

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

CHRIS SAYS IT’S HIS HOPE THIS WAY OF THINKING–OF TRYING NEW SOLUTIONS AND FAILING FAST– PERMEATES INTO THE RANKS OF THE REGULAR MILITARY..AT LEAST TO A CERTAIN EXTENT. 

CHRIS AND BRAD BOTH SAY IF THE CONCEPTS BUILDING MOMENTUM TEACHES COULD BE MORE INGRAINED INTO THE INSTITUTIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF OUR MILITARY AS A WHOLE…IT WOULDN’T JUST BENEFIT SPECIAL OPERATORS…BUT THE ENTIRE FIGHTING FORCE. 

[BRAD HALSEY]

Let’s imagine we push everything out to the right, and we’re going into some crazy, you know, a post apocalyptic thing, or whatever, it’s still going to be all these clever solutions that people will be doing, because all the big toys will be broken, all the big things will be done, all the satellites will be down or name a thing, you know, name some horrible thing. And now it’s going to be a race to the clever, it’s always going to be a race to the clever and technology has made it so accessible,

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

WHILE BUILDING MOMENTUM MAY BE A  VETERAN OWNED SMALL BUSINESS THAT WORKS WITH SOME OF THE MOST ELITE WARRIORS ON THE PLANET….

THEY DO CORPORATE EVENTS TOO…AND THERE ARE SOME BOOT CAMPS COMING UP THIS SUMMER AND FALL WHERE INDIVIDUALS CAN TAKE PART BY BUYING A SEAT IN THE CLASS AS WELL…MIGHT JUST HAVE TO SCHEDULE A TEAM BUILDING RETREAT FOR THE GUYS HERE AT THE SHOW. 

[ADVERTISEMENT]

[WEAPONS AND WARFARE THEME]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

FOR OUR WEAPON OF THE WEEK WE ARE HEADING ACROSS THE ATLANTIC TO CHECK OUT THE BRITISH ARMY’S CHALLENGER 3 BATTLE TANK. A BULLY THAT’S SETTING SOME NEW STANDARDS FOR TANK WARFARE. 

LIKE IT’S NAME IMPLIES THE CHALLENGER 3 IS THE NEXT EVOLUTION OF THE CHALLENGER 2 MAIN BATTLE TANKS THE BRITS HAVE BEEN USING SINCE 1998. WITH THAT EVOLUTION COMES SOME SIGNIFICANT UPGRADES. NOTABLY IN FIREPOWER. MORE ON THAT IN A MOMENT, BUT FIRST HERE ARE SOME PERTINENT DETAILS. 

WEIGHING 66 TONS, AND BUILT FOR A CREW OF FOUR, THE CHALLENGER 3 IS MADE  BY RHEINMETALL BAE SYSTEMS LAND, YES THAT IS A MOUTHFUL, IN TELFORD ENGLAND. THE BRITISH ARMY IS DUE TO RECEIVE EIGHT PROTOTYPES, AND EVENTUALLY FIELD A FLEET OF 147 TANKS. THE CHALLENGER 3 COMES EQUIPPED WITH AN ALL NEW TURRET, AN IMPROVED HULL. AND IMPROVED ARMOR.

OF COURSE THE MAIN FEATURE IS THE 120 MM L-55-A-1 SMOOTHBORE HIGH PRESSURE GUN. VERY IMPRESSIVE SOUNDING, BUT WHAT DOES IT MEAN? 

WELL, WHEN PAIRED WITH THE LATEST 120MM DM-73 AMMUNITION IT NOW CHECKS IN WITH AN ENGAGEMENT RANGE OF UP TO 5,000 METERS. 

FOR THOSE OF US NOT YET ON THE METRIC SYSTEM, THAT’S A LITTLE MORE THAN THREE MILES! A STAT THAT’S NOT LOST ON THE TROOPS THAT WILL BE TRAINED TO TAKE IT INTO COMBAT IF THE NEED ARISES. 

[COL. WILLIAM WAUGH]

In terms of the lethality, we’re pairing the latest 120 millimeter smoothbore gun, high pressure gun, and we’re pairing that with the most lethal ammunition available, so this will be one of the most lethal tanks in here.

All of this is capped off with a new set of sets of sighting systems that allows us to direct that authority with with much greater precision 24 hours a day, and overall whole capability is total step change to what we currently have We challenge you to.”

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

SO WHAT CAN PEOPLE ON THE BUSINESS END OF THIS BEAST EXPECT? THE CHALLENGER 3 CAN FIRE THE LATEST ARMOR-PIERCING FIN-STABILIZED DISCARDING SABOT ROUNDS, HIGH-EXPLOSIVE ANTI-TANK ROUNDS, AND PROGRAMMABLE AIRBURST MUNITIONS. THAT VERSATILITY ALLOWS CREWS TO ENGAGE A WIDE VARIETY OF TARGETS.

AND IF YOU’RE THINKING YOU WANT ONE FOR WEEKEND OUTINGS WITH THE BOYS, BETTER START SAVING NOW. WELL EQUIPPED IT’S GOING TO COST YOU A COOL $5 MILLION PER.

[TRANSITION]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

IN THIS WEEK’S COMM CHECK WE’VE GOT AN UPDATE ON A COMPANY WE FEATURED PREVIOUSLY ON ‘WEAPONS AND WARFARE’’, EPISCI. 

IN MARCH THEY WERE A PART OF OUR DEBRIEF ON A-I PILOTS AND THEIR GROWING ROLE IN EVERY BRANCH’S BATTLE PLANS FOR FUTURE CONFLICTS.

IN MAY THEIR AUTONOMY ALGORITHMS WERE ON BOARD THE  X-62-A VISTA, A MODIFIED F-16-D, THAT THE SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE, FRANK KENDALL TOOK FOR A RIDE. HE WANTED TO EXPERIENCE FOR HIMSELF AN AIRCRAFT THAT USES MACHINE LEARNING AND SPECIALIZED SOFTWARE TO FLY AUTONOMOUSLY. 

WHICH BRINGS US TO EARLIER THIS MONTH WHEN WE RECEIVED BATTLING PRESS RELEASES ANNOUNCING EPISCI IS BEING ACQUIRED BY MERLIN, ANOTHER DEVELOPER OF AUTONOMOUS FLIGHT TECHNOLOGY. THE BOSTON-BASED MERLIN SAYS THE ACQUISITION WILL SOLIDIFY ITS POSITION AS A LEADER IN THE AUTONOMOUS AVIATION INDUSTRY. NO WORD YET ON HOW MUCH MERLIN IS PAYING TO ACQUIRE EPISCI, OR IF THE CALIFORNIA BASED COMPANY WILL CONTINUE TO OPERATE UNDER THE SAME NAME.

[MALE VOICE]

ALL OPINIONS EXPRESSED IN THIS SHOW ARE SOLELY THOSE OF THE CONTRIBUTORS.

[TRANSITION]

[RYAN ROBERTSON]

TIME NOW FOR THIS WEEK’S WRAP AND THIS ONE HITS A LITTLE CLOSER TO HOME, BECAUSE IT DEALS WITH A MAN WHO CALLED HIMSELF A JOURNALIST. LET ME SET THE STAGE A LITTLE BIT. IN EARLY JUNE, ISRAELI SPECIAL FORCES RESCUE FOR ISRAELI HOSTAGES IN GAZA, THREE MEN AND ONE WOMAN. THEY WERE TAKEN HOSTAGE BY HAMAS BACK ON OCTOBER 7 AND HELD FOR MONTHS. NOT IN TUNNELS OR TERRORISTS STRONGHOLDS, BUT IN THE HOMES OF SOME PEOPLE IN GAZA.THESE FAMILIES WERE KEEPING HOSTAGES FOR MONTHS, MERE FEET FROM WHERE THEIR KIDS SLEPT. AND BY ALL AVAILABLE ACCOUNTS SO FAR THE FAMILIES THAT WILLINGLY HELD THE HOSTAGES IT DOESN’T LOOK LIKE THEY WERE FORCED.

ONE OF THOSE FAMILIES IS THE AL-JAMALS. THE PATRIARCH, AHMAD WAS A LOCAL PHYSICIAN AND PROMINENT MEMBER OF THE COMMUNITY. HIS SON ABDULLAH, A SUPPOSEDLY JOURNALIST FOR PALESTINIAN MEDIA, AND AHMAD’S BROTHER, A LAWYER FOR THE GOVERNMENT IN GAZA, WHICH IS HAMAS. AHMAD AND ABDULLAH WERE KILLED IN THE RESCUE OPERATION ALONG WITH A DOULAS WIFE A PHLEBOTOMIST AT A LOCAL HEALTH CLINIC.

BASED ON THE EVIDENCE COMING OUT AHMAD AND ABDULLAH AL-JAMAL WERE LIARS, TERRORISTS AND PROFESSIONAL FAILURES. AS A MEDICAL DOCTOR, AHMAD TOOK AN OATH TO FIRST DO NO HARM.

AS A JOURNALIST ABDULLAH’S JOB WAS TO REVEAL TRUTH, NOT HIDE PEOPLE. HE COULD HAVE USED HIS POSITION TO TELL FELLOW PALESTINIANS HAMAS IS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION HELL BENT ON CARRYING OUT A GENOCIDE EVEN IF IT MEANS THOUSANDS OF PALESTINIANS WILL DIE AND THEIR HOMES WILL BE DESTROYED.

BUT ABDULLAH WAS NOT A JOURNALIST. AT SOME POINT, HE CROSSED THE LINE AND NOW HE’S DEAD. HE’S DEAD BECAUSE WHEN HE CROSSED THAT LINE, HE STOPPED BEING A JOURNALIST AND BECAME A TERRORIST WILLING TO USE VIOLENCE AGAINST INNOCENT PEOPLE TO ENACT CHANGE. HE WAS COMPLICIT IN THE MURDER, RAPE, KIDNAPPING AND TORTURE OF INNOCENT PEOPLE.

BUT THERE WILL STILL BE THOSE IN THIS WORLD WHO LOOK AT PEOPLE LIKE ABDULLAH AL-JAMAL AND WILL EQUATE HIS ACTIONS WITH THOSE OF ALL JOURNALISTS PAINT HIM AS AN EXAMPLE OF WHY ALL JOURNALISTS SHOULD NOT BE TRUSTED.

AT THE TIME I’M RECORDING THIS WRAP THE STORY IS FAIRLY NEW, BUT I CAN JUST IMAGINE HOW IT’S GOING TO BE PICKED UP AND PORTRAYED ON SOCIAL MEDIA SITES AROUND THE WORLD. SO LET ME GO ON THE RECORD NOW AND SAY ABDULLAH AL-JAMAL WAS NOT A JOURNALIST. DESPITE HIM IDENTIFYING AS ONE. ABDULLAH AL-JAMAL WAS A TERRORIST.

JOURNALISTS REPORT FACTUAL INFORMATION WITHIN CONTEXT AND WITHOUT BIAS, PERIOD. ANYTHING ELSE IS NOT JOURNALISM. AND ANYONE CLAIMING TO BE A JOURNALIST, WHILE VIOLATING THESE PRINCIPLES IS NOT WHAT THEY CLAIMED TO BE. PERIOD. I HOPE THAT HELPS CLEAR UP SOME CONFUSION HOPEFULLY, BEFORE IT STARTS.

FOR SENIOR PRODUCER BRETT BAKER, VIDEO EDITOR BRIAN SPENCER AND GRAPHICS DESIGNER DAKOTA PETIO, I’M RYAN ROBERTSON WITH STRAIGHT ARROW NEWS, SIGNING OFF.